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Effects of Nutritional Prehabilitation, With and Without Exercise, on Outcomes of Patients Who Undergo Colorectal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Chelsia Gillis
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests Address requests for reprints to: Chelsia Gillis, RD, MSc, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Teaching Research Wellness Building, 3280 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6.
    Affiliations
    Cumming School of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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  • Katherine Buhler
    Affiliations
    Cumming School of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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  • Lauren Bresee
    Affiliations
    Cumming School of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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  • Francesco Carli
    Affiliations
    Department of Anesthesia, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
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  • Leah Gramlich
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
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  • Nicole Culos-Reed
    Affiliations
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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  • Tolulope T. Sajobi
    Affiliations
    Cumming School of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    O’Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
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  • Tanis R. Fenton
    Affiliations
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Institute of Public Health, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada

    Nutrition Services, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada
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      Background & Aims

      Although there have been meta-analyses of the effects of exercise-only prehabilitation on patients undergoing colorectal surgery, little is known about the effects of nutrition-only (oral nutritional supplements with and without counseling) and multimodal (oral nutritional supplements with and without counseling and with exercise) prehabilitation on clinical outcomes and patient function after surgery. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to determine the individual and combined effects of nutrition-only and multimodal prehabilitation compared with no prehabilitation (control) on outcomes of patients undergoing colorectal resection.

      Methods

      We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and ProQuest for cohort and randomized controlled studies of adults awaiting colorectal surgery who received at least 7 days of nutrition prehabilitation with or without exercise. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the pooled risk ratio for categorical data and the weighted mean difference for continuous variables. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay; the secondary outcome was recovery of functional capacity based on results of a 6-minute walk test.

      Results

      We identified 9 studies (5 randomized controlled studies and 4 cohort studies) composed of 914 patients undergoing colorectal surgery (438 received prehabilitation and 476 served as controls). Receipt of any prehabilitation significantly decreased days spent in the hospital compared with controls (weighted mean difference of length of hospital stay = −2.2 days; 95% confidence interval = −3.5 to −0.9). Only 3 studies reported on functional outcomes but could not be pooled owing to methodologic heterogeneity. In the individual studies, multimodal prehabilitation significantly improved results of the 6-minute walk test at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery compared with standard Enhanced Recovery Pathway care and at 8 weeks compared with standard Enhanced Recovery Pathway care with added rehabilitation. The 4 observational studies had a high risk of bias.

      Conclusions

      In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that nutritional prehabilitation alone or combined with an exercise program significantly decreased length of hospital stay by 2 days in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. There is some evidence that multimodal prehabilitation accelerated the return to presurgical functional capacity.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations used in this paper:

      6MWT (6-minute walk test), CI (confidence interval), ERAS (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery), ERP (Enhanced Recovery Pathway), LOS (length of hospital stay), ONS (oral nutritional supplements), RCT (randomized controlled trial), RR (risk ratio), WMD (weighted mean difference)
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