Abbreviations used in this paper:AGA (American Gastroenterological Association), GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), NTC (normal transit constipation), STC (slow transit constipation)
- American Gastroenterological Association technical review on constipation.Gastroenterology. 2013; 144: 218-238
Conflicts of interest The authors disclose the following: Anthony Lembo is a consultant to and an advisory board member for Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and Forest Laboratories. Spencer D. Dorn is a consultant to Ironwood Pharmaceuticals and Forest Laboratories and has received research support from Forest Laboratories, Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Synergy Pharmaceuticals, and Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Adil E. Bharucha is an employee of the Mayo Clinic, has a financial interest in a new technology related to anal manometry, and has been a consultant for Helsin Therapeutics and Asubio Pharmaceuticals. Amanda Pressman discloses no conflicts.