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High Fructose Consumption Can Induce Endotoxemia

      We read the article speculating that a high-fat diet is associated with endotoxemia originating from the gut which is recently published in Gastroenterology by Pendyala et al.
      • Pendyala S.
      • et al.
      They also proposed that the Western-style diet could contribute to endotoxemia by causing changes in gastrointestinal barrier function or the composition of enteric flora. We offer the following comments.
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      References

        • Pendyala S.
        • et al.
        Gastroenterology. 2012; 142: 1100-1101
        • Lustig R.H.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1307-1321
        • Yilmaz Y.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012; 35: 1135-1144
        • Berg R.D.
        Trends Microbiol. 1996; 4: 430-435
        • Bergheim I.
        • et al.
        J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 983-992

      Linked Article

      • A High-Fat Diet Is Associated With Endotoxemia That Originates From the Gut
        GastroenterologyVol. 142Issue 5
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          Endotoxemia, characterized by an excess of circulating bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide, is associated with systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Placing 8 healthy subjects on a Western-style diet for 1 month induced a 71% increase in plasma levels of endotoxin activity (endotoxemia), whereas a prudent-style diet reduced levels by 31%. The Western-style diet might, therefore, contribute to endotoxemia by causing changes in gastrointestinal barrier function or the composition of the microbiota.
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        GastroenterologyVol. 143Issue 3
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          We thank the authors for their comments on our short report and their suggestions as to additional mechanisms for the endotoxemia that we described following the ingestion of a Western-style diet when compared with a “prudent”-style diet. We recognize that the Western-style diets consumed in the United States and much of Europe tend to be high in fructose content, which likely would change the composition of the gut microbiota. As we mentioned in our report, such a change in microbiota might contribute to endotoxemia when subjects ingest a Western-style diet.
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