Advertisement

High Fructose Consumption Can Induce Endotoxemia

      Dear Sir:
      We read the article speculating that a high-fat diet is associated with endotoxemia originating from the gut which is recently published in Gastroenterology by Pendyala et al.
      • Pendyala S.
      • et al.
      They also proposed that the Western-style diet could contribute to endotoxemia by causing changes in gastrointestinal barrier function or the composition of enteric flora. We offer the following comments.
      The Western-style diet is characterized by consumption of high amounts of saturated fatty acids and simple sugars, especially fructose. Consumption of fructose-sweetened products has grown 5-fold in the last century and doubled in the last 3 decades.
      • Lustig R.H.
      Fructose ingestion is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis and increased gut permeability.
      • Yilmaz Y.
      Endotoxins, which are found in the outer cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria, can be absorbed from gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation via translocation.
      • Berg R.D.
      The proinflammatory action of high fructose consumption owing to increased intestinal translocation of endotoxins was shown in an experimental study.
      • Bergheim I.
      • et al.
      Dysbiosis of the intestinal flora may lead to gastrointestinal barrier impairment. Thus, the high fructose content of the Western-style diet may also be responsible for endotoxemia originating from the gut, along with its high fat content.

      References

        • Pendyala S.
        • et al.
        Gastroenterology. 2012; 142: 1100-1101
        • Lustig R.H.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1307-1321
        • Yilmaz Y.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012; 35: 1135-1144
        • Berg R.D.
        Trends Microbiol. 1996; 4: 430-435
        • Bergheim I.
        • et al.
        J Hepatol. 2008; 48: 983-992

      Linked Article

      • A High-Fat Diet Is Associated With Endotoxemia That Originates From the Gut
        GastroenterologyVol. 142Issue 5
        • Preview
          Endotoxemia, characterized by an excess of circulating bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide, is associated with systemic inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. Placing 8 healthy subjects on a Western-style diet for 1 month induced a 71% increase in plasma levels of endotoxin activity (endotoxemia), whereas a prudent-style diet reduced levels by 31%. The Western-style diet might, therefore, contribute to endotoxemia by causing changes in gastrointestinal barrier function or the composition of the microbiota.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF
      • Reply
        GastroenterologyVol. 143Issue 3
        • Preview
          We thank the authors for their comments on our short report and their suggestions as to additional mechanisms for the endotoxemia that we described following the ingestion of a Western-style diet when compared with a “prudent”-style diet. We recognize that the Western-style diets consumed in the United States and much of Europe tend to be high in fructose content, which likely would change the composition of the gut microbiota. As we mentioned in our report, such a change in microbiota might contribute to endotoxemia when subjects ingest a Western-style diet.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF