Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases With Time, Based on Systematic Review

Published:October 17, 2011DOI:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2011.10.001

      Background & Aims

      We conducted a systematic review to determine changes in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in different regions and with time.

      Methods

      We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE (1950–2010; 8103 citations) and EMBASE (1980–2010; 4975 citations) to identify studies that were population based, included data that could be used to calculate incidence and prevalence, and reported separate data on UC and/or CD in full manuscripts (n = 260). We evaluated data from 167 studies from Europe (1930–2008), 52 studies from Asia and the Middle East (1950–2008), and 27 studies from North America (1920–2004). Maps were used to present worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); time trends were determined using joinpoint regression.

      Results

      The highest annual incidence of UC was 24.3 per 100,000 person-years in Europe, 6.3 per 100,000 person-years in Asia and the Middle East, and 19.2 per 100,000 person-years in North America. The highest annual incidence of CD was 12.7 per 100,000 person-years in Europe, 5.0 person-years in Asia and the Middle East, and 20.2 per 100,000 person-years in North America. The highest reported prevalence values for IBD were in Europe (UC, 505 per 100,000 persons; CD, 322 per 100,000 persons) and North America (UC, 249 per 100,000 persons; CD, 319 per 100,000 persons). In time-trend analyses, 75% of CD studies and 60% of UC studies had an increasing incidence of statistical significance ( P < .05).

      Conclusions

      Although there are few epidemiologic data from developing countries, the incidence and prevalence of IBD are increasing with time and in different regions around the world, indicating its emergence as a global disease.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      AGA Member Login
      Login with your AGA username and password.
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Mikhailov T.A.
        • Furner S.E.
        Breastfeeding and genetic factors in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2009; 15: 270-279
        • Danese S.
        • Sans M.
        • Fiocchi C.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of environmental factors.
        Autoimmun Rev. 2004; 3: 394-400
        • Podolsky D.K.
        Inflammatory bowel disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 417-429
        • Jones D.T.
        • Osterman M.T.
        • Bewtra M.
        • et al.
        Passive smoking and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 2382-2393
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Rawsthorne P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 916-924
        • Zheng J.J.
        • Zhu X.S.
        • Huangfu Z.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in mainland China: a systematic analysis of 50 years of research.
        Chin J Dig Dis. 2005; 6: 175-181
        • Desai H.G.
        • Gupte P.A.
        Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease in India: is it related to improved sanitation?.
        Indian J Gastroenterol. 2005; 24: 23-24
        • Logan R.F.A.
        Inflammatory bowel disease incidence: up, down or unchanged?.
        Gut. 1998; 42: 309-311
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences.
        Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 1504-1517
        • Stroup D.F.
        • Berlin J.A.
        • Morton S.C.
        • et al.
        Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting.
        JAMA. 2000; 283: 2008-2012
        • Benchimol E.I.
        • Fortinsky K.J.
        • Gozdyra P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of international trends.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011; 17: 423-439
        • Kim H.J.
        • Fay M.P.
        • Feuer E.J.
        • et al.
        Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates.
        Stat Med. 2000; 19: 335-351
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • Svenson L.W.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101 ([Erratum appears in Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1945.]): 1559-1568
        • Lowe A.-M.
        • Roy P.-O.
        • B-Poulin M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Quebec, Canada.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 429-435
        • Shivananda S.
        • Lennard-Jones J.
        • Logan R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south?.
        Gut. 1996; 39: 690-697
        • Thompson N.P.
        • Fleming D.M.
        • Charlton J.
        • et al.
        Patients consulting with Crohn's disease in primary care in England and Wales.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10: 1007-1012
        • Wilson J.
        • Knight R.
        • Catto-Smith A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 16 (HC): 1550-1556
        • Bengtson M.B.
        • Solberg C.
        • Aamodt G.
        • et al.
        Familial aggregation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a Norwegian population-based cohort followed for ten years. 2009; 2: 92-99
        • Cottone M.
        • Renda M.C.
        • Mattaliano A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease and CARD15 mutation in a small township in Sicily.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21: 887-892
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • Svenson L.W.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1559-1568
      1. The burden of IBD in Canada.
        • Gearry R.B.
        • Richardson A.
        • Frampton C.M.A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of Crohn's disease in Canterbury, New Zealand: results of an epidemiologic study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 936-943
        • Yu A.P.
        • Cabanilla L.A.
        • Wu E.Q.
        • et al.
        The costs of Crohn's disease in the United States and other Western countries: a systematic review.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2008; 24: 319-328
        • Hou J.K.
        • El-Serag H.
        • Thirumurthi S.
        Distribution and manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans: a systematic review.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 2100-2109
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Shanahan F.
        Disorders of a modern lifestyle: reconciling the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases.
        Gut. 2008; 57: 1185-1191
        • Bernstein C.N.
        Assessing environmental risk factors affecting the inflammatory bowel diseases: a joint workshop of the Crohn's & Colitis Foundations of Canada and the USA.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1139-1146
        • Ekbom A.
        • Adami H.O.
        • Helmick C.G.
        • et al.
        Perinatal risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1990; 132: 1111-1119
        • Klement E.
        • Lysy J.
        • Hoshen M.
        • et al.
        Childhood hygiene is associated with the risk for inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 1775-1782
        • Radon K.
        Contact with farm animals in early life and juvenile inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 120: 354-361
        • Molodecky N.A.
        • Kaplan G.G.
        Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 6: 339-346
        • Duricova D.
        • Pedersen N.
        • Elkjaer M.
        • et al.
        Overall and cause-specific mortality in Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis of population-based studies.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 16: 347-353
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Schoenfeld P.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        The epidemiology and natural history of Crohn's disease in population-based patient cohorts from North America: a systematic review.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 16: 51-60
        • Sood A.
        • Midha V.
        • Sood N.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India.
        Gut. 2003; 52: 1587-1590
        • Lennard-Jones J.E.
        Classification of inflammatory bowel disease.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 2-6
        • Marteau P.
        Diagnostic criteria for inflammatory bowel disease in adults.
        Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme. 1999; 2 (discussion 101–105): 93-100

      References

        • Lowe A.-M.
        • Roy P.-O.
        • B-Poulin M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Quebec, Canada.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 429-435
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Rawsthorne P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 916-924
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • et al.
        Small-area variations and sociodemographic correlates for the incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2001; 154: 328-335
        • Green C.
        • Elliott L.
        • Beaudoin C.
        • et al.
        A population-based ecologic study of inflammatory bowel disease: searching for etiologic clues.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164 (discussion 624–628): 615-623
        • Pinchbeck B.R.
        • Kirdeikis J.
        • Thomson A.B.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in northern Alberta.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1988; 10: 505-515
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • Svenson L.W.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study [see comment] [erratum appears in Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1945].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1559-1568
        • Loftus C.G.
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Harmsen W.S.
        • et al.
        Update on the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–2000.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 254-261
        • Gollop J.H.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn's disease: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1943–1982.
        Gut. 1988; 29: 49-56
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival.
        Gut. 2000; 46: 336-343
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival [erratum appears in Gastroenterology 1999;116:1507].
        Gastroenterology. 1998; 114: 1161-1168
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Whisnant J.
        • Elveback L.R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1975.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1980; 112: 759-763
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Nobrega F.T.
        • Kurland L.T.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory colon disease in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935–1964.
        Gastroenterology. 1972; 62: 935-941
        • Calkins B.M.
        • Lilienfeld A.M.
        • Garland C.F.
        • et al.
        Trends in incidence rates of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
        Dig Dis Sci. 1984; 29: 913-920
        • Monk M.
        • Mendeloff A.I.
        • Siegel C.I.
        • et al.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis among adults in Baltimore. I. Hospital incidence and prevalence, 1960 to 1963.
        Gastroenterology. 1968; 54: 822-824
        • Kurata J.H.
        • Kantor-Fish S.
        • Frankl H.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease among ethnic groups in a large health maintenance organization.
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 102: 1940-1948
        • Herrinton L.J.
        • Liu L.
        • Lewis J.D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a Northern California managed care organization, 1996–2002.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 1998-2006
        • Garland C.F.
        • Lilienfeld A.M.
        • Mendeloff A.I.
        • et al.
        Incidence rates of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in fifteen areas of the United States.
        Gastroenterology. 1981; 81: 1115-1124
        • Nunes G.C.
        • Ahlquist Jr, R.E.
        Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease.
        Am J Surg. 1983; 145: 578-581
        • Stowe S.P.
        • Redmond S.R.
        • Stormont J.M.
        • et al.
        An epidemiologic study of inflammatory bowel disease in Rochester, New York.
        Gastroenterology. 1990; 98: 104-110
        • Stonnington C.M.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Chronic ulcerative colitis: incidence and prevalence in a community.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 402-409
        • Spencer R.J.
        Etiology and epidemiology of ulcerative colitis.
        Can J Surg. 1974; 17: 414-415
        • Ogunbi S.O.
        • Ransom J.A.
        • Sullivan K.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in African-American children living in Georgia.
        J Pediatr. 1998; 133: 103-107
        • Appleyard C.B.
        • Hernandez G.
        • Rios-Bedoya C.F.
        Basic epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004; 10 ([see comment]): 106-111
        • Edwards C.N.
        • Griffith S.G.
        • Hennis A.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and disease characteristics in Barbados, West Indies.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1419-1424
        • Victoria C.R.
        • Sassak L.Y.
        • Nunes H.R.
        Incidence and prevalence rates of inflammatory bowel diseases, in midwestern of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.
        Arq Gastroenterol. 2009; 46: 20-25
        • Souza M.H.
        • Troncon L.E.
        • Rodrigues C.M.
        • et al.
        Trends in the occurrence (1980–1999) and clinical features of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a university hospital in southeastern Brazil [in Portuguese].
        Arq Gastroenterol. 2002; 39: 98-105
        • Linares de la Cal J.A.
        • Canton C.
        • Hermida C.
        • et al.
        Estimated incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Argentina and Panama (1987–1993).
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1999; 91: 277-286
        • Lok K.H.
        • Hung H.G.
        • Ng C.H.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Crohn's disease in the Hong Kong Chinese population: experiences from a regional hospital.
        Hong Kong Med. 2007; 13: 436-441
        • Leong R.W.L.
        • Lau J.Y.
        • Sung J.J.Y.
        The epidemiology and phenotype of Crohn's disease in the Chinese population.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004; 10: 646-651
        • Lok K.-H.
        • Hung H.-G.
        • Ng C.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ulcerative colitis in Chinese population: experience from a single center in Hong Kong.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23: 406-410
        • Lai C.W.
        • Wu P.C.
        • Wong K.L.
        • et al.
        Clinical features of ulcerative proctocolitis in Hong Kong Chinese: a review of three decades.
        Am J Proctol Gastroenterol Colon Rectal Surg. 1985; 36: 14-19
        • Chow D.K.L.
        • Leong R.W.L.
        • Tsoi K.K.F.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in the Chinese population. 2009; 3: 647-654
        • Zheng J.J.
        • Zhu X.S.
        • Huangfu Z.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in mainland China: a systematic analysis of 50 years of research.
        Chin J Dig Dis. 2005; 6: 175-181
        • Zheng J.J.
        • Zhu X.S.
        • Huangfu Z.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and incidence rates of Crohn's disease in mainland China: a meta-analysis of 55 years of research.
        J Dig Dis. 2010; 11: 161-166
        • Niv Y.
        • Torten D.
        • Tamir A.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the upper Galilee, Northern Israel, 1967–1986.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1990; 85: 1580-1583
        • Fireman Z.
        • Grossman A.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970–1980.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1989; 84: 255-258
        • Grossman A.
        • Fireman Z.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of central Israel 1970–1980.
        Hepatogastroenterology. 1989; 36: 193-197
        • Gilat T.
        • Ribak J.
        • Benaroya Y.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of Tel-Aviv Jafo. I. Epidemiology.
        Gastroenterology. 1974; 66: 335-342
        • Rozen P.
        • Zonis J.
        • Yekutiel P.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of Tel-Aviv-Yafo.
        Gastroenterology. 1979; 76: 25-30
        • Odes H.S.
        • Locker C.
        • Neumann L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in southern Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 1859-1862
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krawiec J.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of southern Israel 1961–1985: epidemiological and clinical study.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 1630-1636
        • Shapira M.
        • Tamir A.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Kinneret sub district, Israel 1965–1994: incidence and prevalence in different subgroups.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998; 27: 134-137
        • Shapira M.
        • Tamir A.
        Crohn's disease in the Kinneret sub-district, Israel, 1960–1990.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 1994; 10: 231-233
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krawiec J.
        Incidence of idiopathic ulcerative colitis in Jewish population subgroups in the Beer Sheva region of Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1987; 82: 854-858
        • Krawiec J.
        • Odes H.S.
        • Lasry Y.
        • et al.
        Aspects of the epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population in Beer Sheva, Israel.
        Isr J Med Sci. 1984; 20: 16-21
        • Jacobsohn W.Z.
        • Levine Y.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of Jerusalem.
        Isr J Med Sci. 1986; 22: 559-563
        • Niv Y.
        • Abuksis G.
        • Fraser G.M.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Israel: a survey of Israeli kibbutz settlements.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 2961-2965
        • Niv Y.
        • Abuksis G.
        • Fraser G.M.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in Israel: a survey of Israeli kibbutz settlements.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 693-698
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krawiec J.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in migrant and native Jewish populations of southern Israel.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 36-38
        • Sood A.
        • Midha V.
        • Sood N.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India.
        Gut. 2003; 52: 1587-1590
        • Abdul-Baki H.
        • ElHajj I.
        • El-Zahabi L.M.N.
        • et al.
        Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Lebanon.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 475-480
        • Utsunomiya T.
        Ulcerative colitis in Japan.
        IRYO Jpn J Natl Med Serv. 1983; 37
        • Morita N.
        • Toki S.
        • Hirohashi T.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: nationwide epidemiological survey during the year 1991.
        J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 1-4
        • Yoshida Y.
        • Murata Y.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: studies of epidemiology and etiopathogenesis.
        Med Clin North Am. 1990; 74: 67-90
        • Kitahora T.
        • Utsunomiya T.
        • Yokota A.
        Epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Japan: incidence and familial occurrence.
        J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 5-8
        • Yao T.
        • Matsui T.
        • Hiwatashi N.
        Crohn's disease in Japan: diagnostic criteria and epidemiology.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2000; 43: S85-S93
        • Yang S.K.
        • Hong W.S.
        • Min Y.I.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Songpa-Kangdong District, Seoul, Korea, 1986–1997.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 15: 1037-1042
        • Yang S.-K.
        • Yun S.
        • Kim J.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Songpa-Kangdong district, Seoul, Korea, 1986–2005: a KASID study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 542-549
        • Al-Ghamdi A.S.
        • Al-Mofleh I.A.
        • Al-Rashed R.S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and outcome of Crohn's disease in a teaching hospital in Riyadh.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10: 1341-1344
        • Lee S.
        Crohn's disease in Singapore.
        Med J Aust. 1974; 1: 266-269
        • Fung W.P.
        • Monteiro E.H.
        • Murugasu J.J.
        • et al.
        Non-specific ulcerative colitis in Chinese and Indians in Singapore.
        Med J Aust. 1971; 2: 361-365
        • Niriella M.A.
        • De Silva A.P.
        • Dayaratne A.H.G.K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in two districts of Sri Lanka: a hospital based survey.
        BMC Gastroenterol. 2010; 10: 32
        • Wei S.C.
        • Ni Y.H.
        • Shieh M.J.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Taiwan during a 20-year period. 2009; 5: A363
        • Tozun N.
        • Atug O.
        • Imeryuz N.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in Turkey: a multicenter epidemiologic survey.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009; 43: 51-57
        • Tezel A.
        • Dokmeci G.
        • Eskiocak M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological features of ulcerative colitis in Trakya, Turkey.
        J Int Med Res. 2003; 31: 141-148
        • Radhakrishnan S.
        • Zubaidi G.
        • Daniel M.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Oman.
        Digestion. 1997; 58: 266-270
        • Al-Shamali M.A.
        • Kalaoui M.
        • Patty I.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Kuwait: a review of 90 cases.
        Digestion. 2003; 67: 218-224
        • Al-Nakib B.R.S.
        • Jacob G.S.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Kuwait.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1984; 79: 191-194
        • Shivananda S.
        • Lennard-Jones J.
        • Logan R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south?.
        Gut. 1996; 39: 690-697
        • Bonnevie O.
        • Riis P.
        • Anthonisen P.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen County.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1968; 3: 432-438
        • Langholz E.
        • Munkholm P.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen county from 1962 to 1987.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 1247-1256
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962–87: a sixfold increase in incidence.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 609-614
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence of Crohn disease in the county of Copenhagen [in Danish].
        Ugeskr Laeger. 1993; 155: 3199-3202
        • Vind I.
        • Riis L.
        • Jess T.
        • et al.
        Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003–2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database [see comment].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1274-1282
        • Binder V.
        • Both H.
        • Hansen P.K.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the County of Copenhagen, 1962 to 1978.
        Gastroenterology. 1982; 83: 563-568
        • Jacobsen B.A.
        • Fallingborg J.
        • Rasmussen H.H.
        • et al.
        Increase in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern Denmark: a population-based study, 1978–2002.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 18: 601-606
        • Fonager K.
        • Sorensen H.T.
        • Olsen J.
        Change in incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Denmark.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1997; 26: 1003-1008
        • Berner J.
        • Kiaer T.
        Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease on the Faroe Islands 1964–83.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 188-192
        • Roin F.
        • Roin J.
        Inflammatory bowel disease of the Faroe Islands, 1981–1988.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 44-46
        • Salupere R.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Estonia: a prospective epidemiologic study 1993–1998.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2001; 7: 387-388
        • Linden G.
        • Moller C.
        Ulcerative colitis in Finland. II. One-year incidence in all hospitals.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1971; 14: 264-266
        • Moller C.
        • Linden G.
        Ulcerative colitis in Finland. I. Cases treated at central hospitals, 1956–1967.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1971; 14: 259-263
        • Halme L.
        • von Smitten K.
        • Husa A.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in the Helsinki metropolitan area during 1975–1985.
        Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1989; 78: 115-119
        • Manninen P.
        • Karvonen A.L.
        • Huhtala H.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in Finland.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010; 45: 1063-1067
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Johannsson J.H.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland, 1990–1994: a prospective, nationwide, epidemiological study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 12: 31-38
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Johannsson J.H.
        • Oddsson E.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland, 1980–89.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1998; 33: 71-77
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Thorgeirsson T.
        Ulcerative colitis in Iceland.
        Nord Med. 1983; 98: 298-301
        • Bjornsson S.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland during a 30-year period, 1950–1979.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 47-49
        • Romberg-Camps M.J.
        • Hesselink-van de Kruijs M.A.
        • Schouten L.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in South Limburg (the Netherlands) 1991–2002: Incidence, diagnostic delay, and seasonal variations in onset and symptoms.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2009; 3: 115-124
        • Russel M.G.
        • Dorant E.
        • Volovics A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in The Netherlands: results of a prospective study.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1998; 41: 33-40
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Nap M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Regio Leiden, The Netherlands.
        Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 966-974
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of proctocolitis in the region of Leiden, The Netherlands: a population study from 1979 to 1983.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1987; 22: 993-1002
        • Haug K.
        • Schrumpf E.
        • Halvorsen J.F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in western Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 1271-1275
        • Haug K.
        • Schrumpf E.
        • Barstad S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in western Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988; 23: 517-522
        • Kildebo S.
        • Breckan R.
        • Nordgaard K.
        • et al.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in northern Norway from 1983 to 1986.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 1265-1270
        • Kildebo S.
        • Nordgaard K.
        • Aronsen O.
        • et al.
        The incidence of ulcerative colitis in Northern Norway from 1983 to 1986.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990; 25: 890-896
        • Myren J.
        • Gjone E.
        • Hertzberg J.N.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis and regional enterocolitis (Crohn's disease) in Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971; 6: 511-514
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in four counties of southeastern Norway, 1990–93. A prospective population-based study. The Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway (IBSEN) Study Group of Gastroenterologists.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 362-366
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in four counties in southeastern Norway, 1990–93. A prospective population-based study. The Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway (IBSEN) Study Group of Gastroenterologists.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 355-361
        • Bengtson M.B.
        • Solberg C.
        • Aamodt G.
        • et al.
        Familial aggregation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a Norwegian population-based cohort followed for ten years. 2009; 2: 92-99
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in southeastern Norway: evaluation of methods after 1 year of registration.
        Digestion. 1995; 56: 377-381
        • Brahme F.
        • Lindstrom C.
        • Wenckert A.
        Crohn's disease in a defined population.
        Gastroenterology. 1975; 69: 342-351
        • Stewenius J.
        • Adnerhill I.
        • Ekelund G.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in the city of Malmo, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 38-43
        • Ekbom A.
        • Helmick C.
        • Zack M.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a large, population-based study in Sweden.
        Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 350-358
        • Bergman L.
        • Krause U.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in central Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975; 10: 725-729
        • Norlen B.J.
        • Krause U.
        • Bergman L.
        An epidemiological study of Crohn's disease.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970; 5: 385-390
        • Lapidus A.
        • Bernell O.
        • Hellers G.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955–1989.
        Gut. 1997; 41: 480-486
        • Nordenvall B.
        • Brostrom O.
        • Berglund M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Stockholm County 1955–1979.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. Sep 1985; 20: 783-790
        • Lapidus A.
        Crohn's disease in Stockholm County during 1990–2001: an epidemiological update [see comment].
        World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12: 75-81
        • Nyhlin H.
        • Danielsson A.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in a defined population in northern Sweden, 1974–1981.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 1185-1192
        • Lindberg E.
        • Jornerot G.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease is not decreasing in Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 495-500
        • Tysk C.
        • Jarnerot G.
        Ulcerative proctocolitis in Orebro, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 945-950
        • Rönnblom A.
        • Samuelsson S.M.
        • Ekbom A.
        Ulcerative colitis in the county of Uppsala 1945–2007: incidence and clinical characteristics.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2010; 4: 532-536
        • Keighley A.
        • Miller D.S.
        • Hughes A.O.
        • et al.
        The demographic and social characteristics of patients with Crohn's disease in the Nottingham area.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1976; 11: 293-296
        • Smith I.S.
        • Young S.
        • Gillespie G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological aspects of Crohn's disease in Clydesdale 1961–1970.
        Gut. 1975; 16: 62-67
        • Kyle J.
        An epidemiological study of Crohn's disease in Northeast Scotland.
        Gastroenterology. 1971; 61: 826-833
        • Yapp T.R.
        • Stenson R.
        • Thomas G.A.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease incidence in Cardiff from 1930: an update for 1991–1995.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 12: 907-911
        • Thomas G.A.
        • Millar-Jones D.
        • Rhodes J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Cardiff over 60 years: 1986–1990 an update.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995; 7: 401-405
        • Srivastava E.D.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Morris T.J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Cardiff over 20 years: 1968–87.
        Gut. 1992; 33: 256-258
        • Mayberry J.
        • Rhodes J.
        • Hughes L.E.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Cardiff between 1934–1977.
        Gut. 1979; 20: 602-608
        • Gunesh S.
        • Thomas G.A.O.
        • Williams G.T.
        • et al.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in Cardiff over the last 75 years: an update for 1996–2005.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008; 27: 211-219
        • Rubin G.P.
        • Hungin A.P.
        • Kelly P.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology and management in an English general practice population.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000; 14: 1553-1559
        • Devlin H.B.
        • Datta D.
        • Dellipiani A.W.
        The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in North Tees Health District.
        World J Surg. 1980; 4: 183-193
        • Tsironi E.
        • Feakins R.M.
        • Probert C.S.J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is rising and abdominal tuberculosis is falling in Bangladeshis in East London, United Kingdom [erratum appears in Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:255. Note: Roberts, Chris SJ corrected to Probert, Chris SJ].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 1749-1755
        • Probert C.S.
        • Jayanthi V.
        • Pollock D.J.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Bangladeshis and Europeans in Britain: an epidemiological comparison in Tower Hamlets.
        Postgrad Med J. 1992; 68: 914-920
        • Jayanthi V.
        • Probert C.S.
        • Pollock D.J.
        • et al.
        Low incidence of ulcerative colitis and proctitis in Bangladeshi migrants in Britain.
        Digestion. 1992; 52: 34-42
        • Probert C.S.
        • Jayanthi V.
        • Pinder D.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological study of ulcerative proctocolitis in Indian migrants and the indigenous population of Leicestershire [see comment].
        Gut. 1992; 33: 687-693
        • Jayanthi V.
        • Probert C.S.
        • Pinder D.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Indian migrants and the indigenous population in Leicestershire.
        Q J Med. 1992; 82: 125-138
        • Morris T.
        • Rhodes J.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in the Cardiff region 1968–1977.
        Gut. 1984; 25: 846-848
        • Carr I.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        The effects of migration on ulcerative colitis: a three-year prospective study among Europeans and first- and second- generation South Asians in Leicester (1991–1994).
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 2918-2922
        • Farrokhyar F.
        • Swarbrick E.T.
        • Grace R.H.
        • et al.
        Low mortality in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in three regional centers in England.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 501-507
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Freeman J.G.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in the city of Derby, 1951–85.
        Gut. 1990; 31: 1262-1265
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in West Indians.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1988; 83: 752-755
        • Garcia Rodriguez L.A.
        • Gonzalez-Perez A.
        • Johansson S.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in the general population.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 22: 309-315
        • Kyle J.
        • Stark G.
        Fall in the incidence of Crohn's disease.
        Gut. 1980; 21: 340-343
        • Evans J.G.
        • Acheson E.D.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis in the Oxford area.
        Gut. 1965; 6: 311-324
        • De Dombal F.T.
        Epidemiology and natural history of Crohn's disease.
        Proc R Soc Med. 1971; 64: 161
        • Lee F.I.
        • Nguyen-van-Tam J.S.
        Prospective study of incidence of Crohn's disease in northwest England: no increase since the late 1970's.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994; 6: 27-31
        • Lee F.I.
        • Costello F.T.
        Crohn's disease in Blackpool—incidence and prevalence 1968–80.
        Gut. 1985; 26: 274-278
        • Miller D.S.
        • Keighley A.C.
        • Langman M.J.
        Changing patterns in epidemiology of Crohn's disease.
        Lancet. 1974; 2: 691-693
        • Tresadern J.C.
        • Gear M.W.
        • Nicol A.
        An epidemiological study of regional enteritis in the Gloucester area.
        Br J Surg. 1973; 60: 366-368
        • Thompson N.P.
        • Fleming D.M.
        • Charlton J.
        • et al.
        Patients consulting with Crohn's disease in primary care in England and Wales.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998; 10: 1007-1012
        • Brown J.S.
        • Humphreys W.G.
        • Parks T.G.
        Changing pattern of Crohn's disease in Northern Ireland.
        Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988; 296 (1444–a–1445)
        • Kyle J.
        Crohn's disease in the northeastern and northern Isles of Scotland: an epidemiological review [see comment].
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 392-399
        • Kyle J.
        • Blair D.W.
        Epidemiology of regional enteritis in north-east Scotland.
        Br J Surg. 1965; 52: 215-217
        • Rose J.D.
        • Roberts G.M.
        • Williams G.
        • et al.
        Cardiff Crohn's disease jubilee: the incidence over 50 years.
        Gut. 1988; 29: 346-351
        • Humphreys W.G.
        • Brown J.S.
        • Parks T.G.
        Crohn's disease in Northern Ireland—a retrospective study of 440 cases.
        Ulster Med J. 1990; 59: 30-35
        • Seagroatt V.
        • Goldacre M.J.
        Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and measles vaccine in an English population, 1979–1998. 2003; 11: 883-887
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a 12-year study (1995–2006).
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23: 957-964
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1995 and 2006: epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 22: 346-353
        • Jojic N.
        • Djurdjevic D.
        • Milutinovic S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in one Belgrade area.
        Arch Gastroenterohepatol. 2000; 19: 69-72
        • Jovanovic Z.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Rijeka-Istra region [in Croatian].
        Lijec Vjesn. 1999; 121: 8-13
        • Sincic B.M.
        • Vucelic B.
        • Persic M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia, 2000–2004: a prospective population-based study [see comment].
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006; 41: 437-444
        • Vucelic B.
        • Korac B.
        • Sentic M.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: incidence and prevalence 1980–1989.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1991; 20: 1043-1047
        • Vucelic B.
        • Korac B.
        • Sentic M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: a ten-year prospective study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1991; 20: 216-220
        • Saro Gismera C.
        • Riestra Menendez S.
        • Milla Crespo A.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. Asturian study in 5 areas (EIICEA). Spain [in Spanish] [see comment].
        An Med Interna. 2003; 20: 3-9
        • Saro Gismera C.
        • Lacort Fernandez M.
        • Arguelles Fernandez G.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Gijon, Asturias, Spain [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 23: 322-327
        • Martinez G.
        • Fernandez Y.
        • Rodrigo Saez L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in the Asturian region [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1983; 63: 534-541
        • Sebastian Domingo J.J.
        • Banares Canizares R.
        • Velo Bellver J.L.
        • et al.
        The epidemiological aspects of chronic inflammatory intestinal disease in a catchment area of the Autonomous Community of Madrid [in Spanish].
        An Med Interna. 1989; 6: 519-522
        • Pajares Garcia J.M.
        • Rodriguez Munoz S.
        • Mate Jimenez J.
        Prevalence of Crohn disease in the central zone of Spain (Castillas, La Mancha, Cantabria and Rioja): cooperative epidemiologic study of the Castilian Digestive System Association [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1987; 71: 313-317
        • Mate-Jimenez J.
        • Munoz S.
        • Vicent D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in urban and rural areas of Spain from 1981 to 1988.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1994; 18: 27-31
        • Garrido A.
        • Martinez M.J.
        • Ortega J.A.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in the Northern area of Huelva.
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2004; 96 (691–694): 687-691
        • Lopez-Serrano P.
        • Perez-Calle J.L.
        • Carrera-Alonso E.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic study on the current incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Madrid.
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2009; 101: 768-772
        • Ruiz V.
        Crohn's disease in Galicia, Spain.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 29-31
        • Ruiz Ochoa V.
        Epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in Galicia from 1976 to 1983 [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1984; 66: 273-279
        • Rivera Irigoin R.
        • de Sola Earle C.
        • Ubina Aznar E.
        • et al.
        Incidence and clinico-epidemiological aspects of ulcerative colitis in the area of the Hospital Costa del Sol [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 30: 7-10
        • Sola Lamoglia R.
        • Garcia-Puges A.M.
        • Mones Xiol J.
        • et al.
        Chronic inflammatory intestinal disease in Catalonia (Barcelona and Gerona) [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1992; 81: 7-14
        • Martinez Sabater A.F.M.
        • Josefa I.F.G.
        • Borghlol Hariri A.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the elderly Safor area (Valencia).
        Gerokomos. 2005; 16: 502-505
        • Arin Letamendia A.
        • Burusco Paternain M.J.
        • Borda Celaya F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological aspects of inflammatory bowel disease in the Pamplona area.
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1999; 91: 769-776
        • Brullet E.
        • Bonfill X.
        • Urrutia G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological study on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in 4 Spanish areas.
        Med Clin (Barc). 1998; 110: 651-656
        • Brullet E.
        • Rue M.
        • Montserrat A.
        • et al.
        A descriptive epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in a community hospital (1985–1989) [in Spanish].
        Med Clin (Barc). 1991; 97: 45-49
        • Alonso P.
        • Ulla M.
        • Soriano M.
        • et al.
        Intestinal inflammatory disease in the province of Soria.
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1992; 82: 87-91
        • Monferrer Guardiola R.
        • Martin Jimenez J.A.
        • Pedraza Sanz R.G.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 02 health area of Castellon (1992–1996).
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1999; 91: 33-46
        • Martinez-Salmeron J.F.
        • Rodrigo M.
        • de Teresa J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Province of Granada, Spain: a retrospective study from 1979 to 1988.
        Gut. 1993; 34: 1207-1209
        • Hinojosa J.
        • Primo J.
        • Lledo S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Sagunto [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1990; 78: 283-287
        • Yanguela J.
        • Ibarra V.
        • Somalo J.
        • et al.
        Rev Asoc Castellana Ap Digestivo. 1991; VII: 106-111
        • Garcia-Cano Lizcano J.
        • Morillas Arino M.
        • Hervas Laguna M.
        • et al.
        Estudio clinico-epidemiologico de la enfermedad inflammatoria intestinal en la provincia de Cuenca (1986–1993).
        Rev Asoc Castellana Ap Digestivo. 1994; X: 169-173
        • Cella Lanau J.
        • Lopez Zaborras J.
        • Gomollon Garcia F.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Aragon: a more and more frequent diagnosis [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1995; 87: 363-367
        • Lopez Miguel C.
        • Sicilia B.
        • Sierra E.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Aragon: outcome of a prospective population-based study [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999; 22: 323-328
        • Pozzati L.
        • Cabanillas A.
        Hospital study of the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the health district of Merida (Spain) [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 25: 541-544
        • Rodrigo L.
        • Riestra S.
        • Nino P.
        • et al.
        A population-based study on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Oviedo (Northern Spain).
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2004; 96: 296-305
        • Arin Letamendia A.
        • Borda Celaya F.
        • Burusco Paternain M.J.
        • et al.
        High incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease in Navarra (Spain).
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 31: 111-116
        • Manousos O.N.
        • Koutroubakis I.
        • Potamianos S.
        • et al.
        A prospective epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in Heraklion, Crete.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 599-603
        • Manousos O.N.
        • Giannadaki E.
        • Mouzas I.A.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis is as common in Crete as in northern Europe: a 5-year prospective study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996; 8: 893-898
        • Ladas S.-D.
        • Mallas E.
        • Giorgiotis K.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: a prospective study.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 1785-1787
        • Tsianos E.V.
        • Masalas C.N.
        • Merkouropoulos M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in north west Greece: rarity of Crohn's disease in an area where ulcerative colitis is common.
        Gut. 1994; 35: 369-372
        • Tsianos E.V.
        • Katsanos K.H.
        • Christodoulou D.
        • et al.
        Continuing low incidence of Crohn's disease in Northwest Greece.
        Dig Liver Dis. 2003; 35: 99-103
        • Tsianos E.
        • Katsanos K.
        • Christodoulou D.
        • et al.
        The epidemiological profile of inflammatory bowel disease in different parts of North-West Greece.
        Ann Gastroenterol. 2005; 18: 434-440
        • Economou M.
        • Filis G.
        • Tsianou Z.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease incidence evolution in North-western Greece is not associated with alteration of NOD2/CARD15 variants.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13: 5116-5120
        • Trallori G.
        • d'Albasio G.
        • Palli D.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease over a 10-year period in Florence (1978–1987).
        Ital J Gastroenterol. 1991; 23: 559-563
        • Trallori G.
        • Palli D.
        • Saieva C.
        • et al.
        A population-based study of inflammatory bowel disease in Florence over 15 years (1978–92).
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 892-899
        • Lanfranchi G.A.
        • Michelini M.
        • Brignola C.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological study on intestinal inflammatory diseases in the Province of Bologna [in Italian].
        G Clin Med. 1976; 57: 235-245
        • Tragnone A.
        • Hanau C.
        • Bazzocchi G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in Bologna, Italy—incidence and risk factors.
        Digestion. 1993; 54: 183-188
        • Cottone M.
        • Cipolla C.
        • Orlando A.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Sicily: a hospital incidence study from 1987 to 1989.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 1991; 7: 636-640
        • Cottone M.
        • Cipolla C.
        • Orlando A.
        • et al.
        Hospital incidence of Crohn's disease in the province of Palermo.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 27-28
        • Cottone M.
        • Renda M.C.
        • Mattaliano A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease and CARD15 mutation in a small township in Sicily.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21: 887-892
        • Ranzi T.
        • Bodini P.
        • Zambelli A.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological aspects of inflammatory bowel disease in a north Italian population: a 4-year prospective study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996; 8: 657-661
        • Tragnone A.
        • Corrao G.
        • Miglio F.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Italy: a nationwide population-based study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1996; 25 (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio del Colon e del Retto (GISC) [see comment]): 1044-1052
        • Dal Pont E.L.P.
        • Galliani E.A.
        • Cavallaro L.G.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) incidence and prevalence in a north east limited area of italy.
        Digestive and Liver Disease. 2010; (Conference: 16th National Congress of Digestive Diseases - Italian Federation of Societies of Digestive Diseases, FISMAD, Verona, Italy.)
        • Cachia E.
        • Calleja N.
        • Aakeroy R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Malta between 1993 and 2005: a retrospective study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 550-553
        • Latour P.
        • Louis E.
        • Belaiche J.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the area of Liege: a 3 years prospective study (1993–1996).
        Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 1998; 61: 410-413
        • Latour P.
        • Belaiche J.
        • Louis E.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the province of Liege (Belgium).
        Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 1996; 59 (La Societe de Gastroenterologie Liegeoise): 3-6
        • Van Gossum A.
        • Adler M.
        • De Reuck M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Brussels' area (1992–1993).
        Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 1996; 59: 7-9
        • Piront P.
        • Louis E.
        • Latour P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in the elderly in the province of Liege.
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2002; 26: 157-161
        • Colombel J.F.
        • Dupas J.L.
        • Cortot A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region and the Somme area of France in 1988 [in French].
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1990; 14: 614-618
        • Flamenbaum M.
        • Zenut M.
        • Aublet-Cuvelier B.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in the department of Puy-de-Dome in 1993 and 1994.
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1997; 21: 491-496
        • Gower-Rousseau C.
        • Salomez J.L.
        • Dupas J.L.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern France (1988–1990).
        Gut. 1994; 35: 1433-1438
        • Molinie F.
        • Gower-Rousseau C.
        • Yzet T.
        • et al.
        Opposite evolution in incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Northern France (1988–1999).
        Gut. 2004; 53: 843-848
        • Abakar-Mahamat A.
        • Filippi J.
        • Pradier C.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Corsica from 2002 to 2003.
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007; 31: 1098-1103
        • Nerich V.
        • Monnet E.
        • Etienne A.
        • et al.
        Geographical variations of inflammatory bowel disease in France: a study based on national health insurance data.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 218-226
        • Pagenault M.
        • Tron I.
        • Alexandre J.L.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in Bretagne (1994–1995).
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1997; 21: 483-490
        • Edouard A.
        • Paillaud M.
        • Merle S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the French West Indies (1997–1999).
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2005; 29: 779-783
        • Colombel J.F.
        • Salomez J.L.
        • Cortot A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in northwestern France. 1989; : 22-55
        • Loffler A.
        • Glados M.
        Data on the epidemiology of Crohn disease in the city of Cologne [in German].
        Med Klin. 1993; 88: 516-519
        • Goebell H.
        • Dirks E.
        • Förster S.
        • et al.
        A prospective analysis of the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in an urban population in Germany.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994; 6: 1039-1046
        • Daiss W.
        • Scheurlen M.
        • Malchow H.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the county of Tubingen (West Germany).
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 39-43
        • Dirks E.
        • Forster S.
        • Thom M.
        • et al.
        Prospective study of the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in a large urban population in Germany (western Ruhr area) [in German].
        Z Gastroenterol. 1994; 32: 332-337
        • Timmer A.
        • Goebell H.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis, 1980–1995—a prospective study in an urban population in Germany.
        Z Gastroenterol. 1999; 37: 1079-1084
        • Timmer A.
        • Breuer-Katschinski B.
        • Goebell H.
        Time trends in the incidence and disease location of Crohn's disease 1980–1995: a prospective analysis in an urban population in Germany.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 1999; 5: 79-84
        • Brandes J.W.
        • Lorenz-Meyer H.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn regional enterocolitis and ulcerative colitis in Marburg/Lahn (West Germany) between 1962 and 1975 [in German].
        Z Gastroenterol. 1983; 21: 69-78
        • Ott C.
        • Obermeier F.
        • Thieler S.
        • et al.
        The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in a rural region of Southern Germany: a prospective population-based study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 20: 917-923
        • Fahrlander H.
        • Baerlocher C.
        Clinical features and epidemiological data on Crohn's disease in the Basle area.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971; 6: 657-662
        • Bitter J.
        • Hulec J.
        Ulcerative colitis in the North Bohemian Region. 1980; 3: 137-144
        • Lakatos L.
        • Mester G.
        • Erdelyi Z.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in Veszprem county of Western Hungary between 1977 and 2001 [in Hungarian].
        Orv Hetil. 2003; 144: 1819-1827
        • Lakatos L.
        • David G.
        • Tunde P.
        • et al.
        High incidence of crohn'sdisease in western hungary between 2002–2006. 2009; 5: A363
        • Prikazska M.
        • Letkovicova M.
        Crohn's disease in the adult population in Slovakia [in Slovak].
        Bratisl Lek Listy. 1996; 97: 230-233
        • Chojecki Z.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in Poland.
        Pol Med Sci Hist Bull. 1964; 7: 53-56
        • Gheorghe L.
        • Gheorghe C.
        • Aposteanu G.
        • et al.
        Clinical patterns and disease distribution in Crohn's disease in relationship to age at diagnosis.
        Romanian J Gastroenterol. 1997; 6: 147-152
        • Gheorghe C.
        • Pascu O.
        • Gheorghe L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in adults who refer to gastroenterology care in Romania: a multicentre study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 16: 1153-1159
        • Wright J.P.
        • Marks I.N.
        • Jameson C.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Cape Town, 1975–1980. Part II. Crohn's disease.
        S Afr Med J. 1983; 63: 226-229
        • Wright J.P.
        • Marks I.N.
        • Jameson C.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Cape Town, 1975–1980. Part I. Ulcerative colitis.
        S Afr Med J. 1983; 63: 223-226
        • Wright J.P.
        • Froggatt J.
        • O'Keefe E.A.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Cape Town 1980–1984.
        S Afr Med J. 1986; 70: 10-15
        • Novis B.H.
        • Marks I.N.
        • Bank S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease at Groote Schuur Hospital during 1970–1974.
        S Afr Med J. 1975; 49: 693-697
        • Rajput H.I.
        • Seebaran A.R.
        • Desai Y.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Indian population of Durban.
        S Afr Med J. 1992; 81: 245-248
        • Anseline P.F.
        Crohn's disease in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. 1995; 8: 564-569
        • Wilson J.
        • Hair C.
        • Knight R.
        • et al.
        High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Australia: a prospective population-based Australian incidence study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010; 16: 1550-1556
        • Eason R.J.
        • Lee S.P.
        • Tasman-Jones C.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Auckland, New Zealand.
        Aust N Z J Med. 1982; 12: 125-131
        • Schlup M.
        • Maclaurin B.P.
        • Barbezat G.O.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease: a ten year retrospective review at Dunedin hospitals.
        N Z Med J. 1986; 99: 141-144
        • Gearry R.B.
        • Richardson A.
        • Frampton C.M.A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of Crohn's disease in Canterbury, New Zealand: results of an epidemiologic study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 936-943

      References

        • Lowe A.-M.
        • Roy P.-O.
        • B-Poulin M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Quebec, Canada.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 429-435
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Rawsthorne P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 916-924
        • Green C.
        • Elliott L.
        • Beaudoin C.
        • et al.
        A population-based ecologic study of inflammatory bowel disease: searching for etiologic clues.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2006; 164 (discussion 624–628): 615-623
        • Pinchbeck B.R.
        • Kirdeikis J.
        • Thomson A.B.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in northern Alberta.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1988; 10: 505-515
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • Svenson L.W.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study [see comment] [erratum appears in Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1945].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1559-1568
        • Loftus C.G.
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Harmsen W.S.
        • et al.
        Update on the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–2000.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 254-261
        • Gollop J.H.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn's disease: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1943–1982.
        Gut. 1988; 29: 49-56
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival.
        Gut. 2000; 46: 336-343
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival [erratum appears in Gastroenterology 1999;116:1507].
        Gastroenterology. 1998; 114: 1161-1168
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Whisnant J.
        • Elveback L.R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1975.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1980; 112: 759-763
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Nobrega F.T.
        • Kurland L.T.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory colon disease in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935–1964.
        Gastroenterology. 1972; 62: 935-941
        • Stonnington C.M.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Chronic ulcerative colitis: incidence and prevalence in a community.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 402-409
        • Kurata J.H.
        • Kantor-Fish S.
        • Frankl H.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease among ethnic groups in a large health maintenance organization.
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 102: 1940-1948
        • Herrinton L.J.
        • Liu L.
        • Lewis J.D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a Northern California managed care organization, 1996–2002.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 1998-2006
        • Herrinton L.J.
        • Liu L.
        • Lafata J.E.
        • et al.
        Estimation of the period prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease among nine health plans using computerized diagnoses and outpatient pharmacy dispensings.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 451-461
        • Kappelman M.D.
        • Rifas-Shiman S.L.
        • Kleinman K.
        • et al.
        The prevalence and geographic distribution of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the United States.
        Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 5: 1424-1429
        • Appleyard C.B.
        • Hernandez G.
        • Rios-Bedoya C.F.
        Basic epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Puerto Rico.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004; 10: 106-111
        • Edwards C.N.
        • Griffith S.G.
        • Hennis A.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and disease characteristics in Barbados, West Indies.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1419-1424
        • Sobrero M.J.
        • Varela E.
        • Gonzalez M.L.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a university hospital health maintenance organization. 2009; 5: A361-A362
        • Lok K.H.
        • Hung H.G.
        • Ng C.H.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Crohn's disease in the Hong Kong Chinese population: experiences from a regional hospital.
        Hong Kong Med. 2007; 13: 436-441
        • Lok K.-H.
        • Hung H.-G.
        • Ng C.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ulcerative colitis in Chinese population: experience from a single center in Hong Kong.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23: 406-410
        • Sung J.J.
        • Hsu R.K.
        • Chan F.K.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in the Chinese population.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1994; 37: 1307-1309
        • Chow D.K.L.
        • Leong R.W.L.
        • Tsoi K.K.F.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in the Chinese population.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 647-654
        • Zheng J.J.
        • Zhu X.S.
        • Huangfu Z.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in mainland China: a systematic analysis of 50 years of research. 2005; 4: 175-181
        • Zheng J.J.
        • Zhu X.S.
        • Huangfu Z.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and incidence rates of Crohn's disease in mainland China: a meta-analysis of 55 years of research.
        J Dig Dis. 2010; 11: 161-166
        • Niv Y.
        • Torten D.
        • Tamir A.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the upper Galilee, Northern Israel, 1967–1986.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1990; 85: 1580-1583
        • Fireman Z.
        • Grossman A.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970–1980.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1989; 84: 255-258
        • Grossman A.
        • Fireman Z.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of central Israel 1970–1980.
        Hepatogastroenterology. 1989; 36: 193-197
        • Gilat T.
        • Ribak J.
        • Benaroya Y.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of Tel-Aviv Jafo. I. Epidemiology.
        Gastroenterology. 1974; 66: 335-342
        • Rozen P.
        • Zonis J.
        • Yekutiel P.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of Tel-Aviv-Yafo.
        Gastroenterology. 1979; 76: 25-30
        • Odes H.S.
        • Locker C.
        • Neumann L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in southern Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 1859-1862
        • Shapira M.
        • Tamir A.
        Crohn's disease in the Kinneret sub-district, Israel, 1960–1990.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 1994; 10: 231-233
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krawiec J.
        Incidence of idiopathic ulcerative colitis in Jewish population subgroups in the Beer Sheva region of Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1987; 82: 854-858
        • Krawiec J.
        • Odes H.S.
        • Lasry Y.
        • et al.
        Aspects of the epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population in Beer Sheva, Israel.
        Isr J Med Sci. 1984; 20: 16-21
        • Niv Y.
        • Abuksis G.
        • Fraser G.M.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Israel: a survey of Israeli kibbutz settlements.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 2961-2965
        • Niv Y.
        • Abuksis G.
        • Fraser G.M.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in Israel: a survey of Israeli kibbutz settlements.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 693-698
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krawiec J.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in migrant and native Jewish populations of southern Israel. 1989; : 36-55
        • Niv Y.
        • Abukasis G.
        Prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Israeli kibbutz population.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1991; 13: 98-101
        • Odes H.S.
        • Fraser D.
        • Krugliak P.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in the Bedouin Arabs of southern Israel: rarity of diagnosis and clinical features.
        Gut. 1991; 32: 1024-1026
        • Birkenfeld S.
        • Zvidi I.
        • Hazazi R.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Israel: a twenty-year survey.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 2009; 43: 743-746
        • Zvidi I.
        • Hazazi R.
        • Birkenfeld S.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of Crohn's disease in Israel: a 20–year survey.
        Dig Dis Sci. 2009; 54: 848-852
        • Sood A.
        • Midha V.
        • Sood N.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India.
        Gut. 2003; 52: 1587-1590
        • Abdul-Baki H.
        • ElHajj I.
        • El-Zahabi L.M.N.
        • et al.
        Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Lebanon.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 475-480
        • Morita N.
        • Toki S.
        • Hirohashi T.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: nationwide epidemiological survey during the year 1991.
        J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 1-4
        • Yao T.
        • Matsui T.
        • Hiwatashi N.
        Crohn's disease in Japan: diagnostic criteria and epidemiology.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 2000; 43: S85-S93
        • Higashi A.
        • Watanabe Y.
        • Ozasa K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and mortality of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in Japan. 1988; 5: 521-526
        • Asakura K.
        • Nishiwaki Y.
        • Inoue N.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in Japan.
        J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44: 659-665
        • Yoshida Y.
        • Murata Y.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: studies of epidemiology and etiopathogenesis.
        Med Clin North Am. 1990; 74: 67-90
        • Yang S.K.
        • Hong W.S.
        • Min Y.I.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Songpa-Kangdong District, Seoul, Korea, 1986–1997.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 15: 1037-1042
        • Yang S.-K.
        • Yun S.
        • Kim J.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Songpa-Kangdong district, Seoul, Korea, 1986–2005: a KASID study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 542-549
        • Tan Y.-M.
        • Goh K.-L.
        Ulcerative colitis in a multiracial Asian country: racial differences and clinical presentation among Malaysian patients.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 5859-5862
        • Lee Y.M.
        • Fock K.
        • See S.J.
        • et al.
        Racial differences in the prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in Singapore.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 15: 622-625
        • Tan C.C.
        • Kang J.Y.
        • Guan R.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: an uncommon problem in Singapore.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1992; 7: 360-362
        • Law N.M.
        • Lim C.C.
        • Chong R.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in the Singapore Chinese population.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998; 26: 27-29
        • Niriella M.A.
        • De Silva A.P.
        • Dayaratne A.H.G.K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in two districts of Sri Lanka: a hospital based survey.
        BMC Gastroenterol. 2010; 10: 32
        • Tezel A.
        • Dokmeci G.
        • Eskiocak M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological features of ulcerative colitis in Trakya, Turkey.
        J Int Med Res. 2003; 31: 141-148
        • Al-Shamali M.A.
        • Kalaoui M.
        • Patty I.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Kuwait: a review of 90 cases.
        Digestion. 2003; 67: 218-224
        • Bonnevie O.
        • Riis P.
        • Anthonisen P.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen County.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1968; 3: 432-438
        • Langholz E.
        • Munkholm P.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen county from 1962 to 1987.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 1247-1256
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962–87: a sixfold increase in incidence.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 609-614
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence of Crohn disease in the county of Copenhagen [in Danish].
        Ugeskr Laeger. 1993; 155: 3199-3202
        • Jacobsen B.A.
        • Fallingborg J.
        • Rasmussen H.H.
        • et al.
        Increase in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern Denmark: a population-based study, 1978–2002.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 18: 601-606
        • Binder V.
        • Both H.
        • Hansen P.K.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the County of Copenhagen, 1962 to 1978.
        Gastroenterology. 1982; 83: 563-568
        • Berner J.
        • Kiaer T.
        Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease on the Faroe Islands 1964–83.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 188-192
        • Manninen P.
        • Karvonen A.L.
        • Huhtala H.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in Finland.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010; 45: 1063-1067
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Thorgeirsson T.
        Ulcerative colitis in Iceland.
        Nord Med. 1983; 98: 298-301
        • Bjornsson S.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland during a 30-year period, 1950–1979. 1989; : 47-55
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Nap M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Regio Leiden, The Netherlands.
        Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 966-974
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of proctocolitis in the region of Leiden, The Netherlands: a population study from 1979 to 1983.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1987; 22: 993-1002
        • Haug K.
        • Schrumpf E.
        • Barstad S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in western Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988; 23: 517-522
        • Bengtson M.B.
        • Solberg C.
        • Aamodt G.
        • et al.
        Familial aggregation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a Norwegian population-based cohort followed for ten years. 2009; 2: 92-99
        • Brahme F.
        • Lindstrom C.
        • Wenckert A.
        Crohn's disease in a defined population.
        Gastroenterology. 1975; 69: 342-351
        • Bergman L.
        • Krause U.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in central Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975; 10: 725-729
        • Norlen B.J.
        • Krause U.
        • Bergman L.
        An epidemiological study of Crohn's disease.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970; 5: 385-390
        • Lapidus A.
        Crohn's disease in Stockholm County during 1990–2001: an epidemiological update [see comment].
        World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12: 75-81
        • Lindberg E.
        • Jornerot G.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease is not decreasing in Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 495-500
        • Lindgren A.
        • Wallerstedt S.
        • Olsson R.
        Prevalence of Crohn's disease and simultaneous occurrence of extraintestinal complications and cancer.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 74-78
        • Tysk C.
        • Jarnerot G.
        Ulcerative proctocolitis in Orebro, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 945-950
        • Keighley A.
        • Miller D.S.
        • Hughes A.O.
        • et al.
        The demographic and social characteristics of patients with Crohn's disease in the Nottingham area.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1976; 11: 293-296
        • Evans J.G.
        • Acheson E.D.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis in the Oxford area.
        Gut. 1965; 6: 311-324
        • Rubin G.P.
        • Hungin A.P.
        • Kelly P.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology and management in an English general practice population.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000; 14: 1553-1559
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Freeman J.G.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in the city of Derby, 1951–85.
        Gut. 1990; 31: 1262-1265
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in West Indians.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1988; 83: 752-755
        • De Dombal F.T.
        Epidemiology and natural history of Crohn's disease.
        Proc R Soc Med. 1971; 64: 161
        • Lee F.I.
        • Costello F.T.
        Crohn's disease in Blackpool—incidence and prevalence 1968–80.
        Gut. 1985; 26: 274-278
        • Miller D.S.
        • Keighley A.C.
        • Langman M.J.
        Changing patterns in epidemiology of Crohn's disease.
        Lancet. 1974; 2: 691-693
        • Kyle J.
        Crohn's disease in the northeastern and northern Isles of Scotland: an epidemiological review [see comment].
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 392-399
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Rhodes J.
        • Newcombe R.G.
        Crohn's disease in Wales, 1967–1976; an epidemiological survey based on hospital admissions.
        Postgrad Med J. 1980; 56: 336-341
        • Penny W.J.
        • Penny E.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease amongst Mormons in Britain and Ireland.
        Soc Sci Med. 1985; 21: 287-290
        • Montgomery S.M.
        • Morris D.L.
        • Thompson N.P.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in British 26 year olds: national longitudinal birth cohort.
        BMJ. 1998; 316: 1058-1059
        • Stone M.A.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Baker R.
        Prevalence and management of inflammatory bowel disease: a cross-sectional study from central England.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003; 15: 1275-1280
        • Probert C.S.
        • Jayanthi V.
        • Hughes A.O.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and family risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: an epidemiological study among Europeans and south Asians in Leicestershire.
        Gut. 1993; 34: 1547-1551
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a 12-year study (1995–2006).
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23: 957-964
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1995 and 2006: epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 22: 346-353
        • Vucelic B.
        • Korac B.
        • Sentic M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: a ten-year prospective study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1991; 20: 216-220
        • Jovanovic Z.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Rijeka-Istra region [in Croatian].
        Lijec Vjesn. 1999; 121: 8-13
        • Azevedo L.F.
        • Magro F.
        • Portela F.
        • et al.
        Estimating the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Portugal using a pharmaco-epidemiological approach.
        Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010; 19: 499-510
        • Saro Gismera C.
        • Riestra Menendez S.
        • Milla Crespo A.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. Asturian study in 5 areas (EIICEA). Spain [in Spanish] [see comment].
        An Med Interna. 2003; 20: 3-9
        • Saro Gismera C.
        • Lacort Fernandez M.
        • Arguelles Fernandez G.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Gijon, Asturias, Spain [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 23: 322-327
        • Mate-Jimenez J.
        • Munoz S.
        • Vicent D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in urban and rural areas of Spain from 1981 to 1988.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1994; 18: 27-31
        • Ruiz Ochoa V.
        Epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in Galicia from 1976 to 1983 [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1984; 66: 273-279
        • Brullet E.
        • Rue M.
        • Montserrat A.
        • et al.
        A descriptive epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in a community hospital (1985–1989) [in Spanish].
        Med Clin (Barc). 1991; 97: 45-49
        • Alonso P.
        • Ulla M.
        • Soriano M.
        • et al.
        Intestinal inflammatory disease in the province of Soria.
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1992; 82: 87-91
        • Martinez-Salmeron J.F.
        • Rodrigo M.
        • de Teresa J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Province of Granada, Spain: a retrospective study from 1979 to 1988.
        Gut. 1993; 34: 1207-1209
        • Hinojosa J.
        • Primo J.
        • Lledo S.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Sagunto [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 1990; 78: 283-287
        • Pajares Garcia J.M.
        • Rodriguez Munoz S.
        • Mate Jimenez J.
        Prevalence of Crohn disease in the central zone of Spain (Castillas, La Mancha, Cantabria and Rioja): cooperative epidemiologic study of the Castilian Digestive System Association [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1987; 71: 313-317
        • Trallori G.
        • Palli D.
        • Saieva C.
        • et al.
        A population-based study of inflammatory bowel disease in Florence over 15 years (1978–92).
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 892-899
        • Cottone M.
        • Renda M.C.
        • Mattaliano A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease and CARD15 mutation in a small township in Sicily.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 2006; 21: 887-892
        • Dal Pont E.L.P.
        • Galliani E.A.
        • Cavallaro L.G.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) incidence and prevalence in a north east limited area of italy.
        Digestive and Liver Disease. 2010; (Conference: 16th National Congress of Digestive Diseases - Italian Federation of Societies of Digestive Diseases, FISMAD, Verona, Italy.)
        • Tsianos E.
        • Katsanos K.
        • Christodoulou D.
        • et al.
        The epidemiological profile of inflammatory bowel disease in different parts of North-West Greece.
        Ann Gastroenterol. 2005; 18: 434-440
        • Loffler A.
        • Glados M.
        Data on the epidemiology of Crohn disease in the city of Cologne [in German].
        Med Klin. 1993; 88: 516-519
        • Goebell H.
        • Dirks E.
        • Förster S.
        • et al.
        A prospective analysis of the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in an urban population in Germany.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994; 6: 1039-1046
        • Daiss W.
        • Scheurlen M.
        • Malchow H.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the county of Tubingen (West Germany).
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 39-43
        • Dirks E.
        • Forster S.
        • Thom M.
        • et al.
        Prospective study of the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in a large urban population in Germany (western Ruhr area) [in German].
        Z Gastroenterol. 1994; 32: 332-337
        • Brandes J.W.
        • Lorenz-Meyer H.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn regional enterocolitis and ulcerative colitis in Marburg/Lahn (West Germany) between 1962 and 1975 [in German].
        Z Gastroenterol. 1983; 21: 69-78
        • Juillerat P.
        • Pittet V.
        • Bulliard J.L.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the Canton of Vaud (Switzerland): a population-based cohort study. 2008; 2: 73-80
        • Bitter J.
        • Hulec J.
        Ulcerative colitis in the North Bohemian Region. 1980; 3: 137-144
        • Lakatos L.
        • Mester G.
        • Erdelyi Z.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in Veszprem county of Western Hungary between 1977 and 2001 [in Hungarian].
        Orv Hetil. 2003; 144: 1819-1827
        • Prikazska M.
        • Letkovicova M.
        Crohn's disease in the adult population in Slovakia [in Slovak].
        Bratisl Lek Listy. 1996; 97: 230-233
        • Chojecki Z.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in Poland.
        Pol Med Sci Hist Bull. 1964; 7: 53-56
        • Gheorghe C.
        • Pascu O.
        • Gheorghe L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in adults who refer to gastroenterology care in Romania: a multicentre study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 16: 1153-1159
        • Anseline P.F.
        Crohn's disease in the Hunter Valley region of Australia.
        Aust N Z J Surg. 1995; 65: 564-569
        • Gearry R.B.
        • Richardson A.
        • Frampton C.M.A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of Crohn's disease in Canterbury, New Zealand: results of an epidemiologic study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 936-943

      References

        • Lowe A.-M.
        • Roy P.-O.
        • B-Poulin M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Quebec, Canada.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 429-435
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Rawsthorne P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 916-924
        • Loftus C.G.
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Harmsen W.S.
        • et al.
        Update on the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–2000.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 254-261
        • Gollop J.H.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn's disease: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1943–1982.
        Gut. 1988; 29: 49-56
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Whisnant J.
        • Elveback L.R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1975.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1980; 112: 759-763
        • Kurata J.H.
        • Kantor-Fish S.
        • Frankl H.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease among ethnic groups in a large health maintenance organization.
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 102: 1940-1948
        • Herrinton L.J.
        • Liu L.
        • Lewis J.D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a Northern California managed care organization, 1996–2002.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 1998-2006
        • Stonnington C.M.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        Chronic ulcerative colitis: incidence and prevalence in a community.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 402-409
        • Spencer R.J.
        Etiology and epidemiology of ulcerative colitis.
        Can J Surg. 1974; 17: 414-415
        • Edwards C.N.
        • Griffith S.G.
        • Hennis A.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and disease characteristics in Barbados, West Indies.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1419-1424
        • Lok K.H.
        • Hung H.G.
        • Ng C.H.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Crohn's disease in the Hong Kong Chinese population: experiences from a regional hospital.
        Hong Kong Med. 2007; 13: 436-441
        • Leong R.W.L.
        • Lau J.Y.
        • Sung J.J.Y.
        The epidemiology and phenotype of Crohn's disease in the Chinese population.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004; 10: 646-651
        • Fireman Z.
        • Grossman A.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970–1980.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1989; 84: 255-258
        • Grossman A.
        • Fireman Z.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of central Israel 1970–1980.
        Hepatogastroenterology. 1989; 36: 193-197
        • Gilat T.
        • Ribak J.
        • Benaroya Y.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of Tel-Aviv Jafo. I. Epidemiology.
        Gastroenterology. 1974; 66: 335-342
        • Odes H.S.
        • Locker C.
        • Neumann L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in southern Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 1859-1862
        • Morita N.
        • Toki S.
        • Hirohashi T.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Japan: nationwide epidemiological survey during the year 1991.
        J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 1-4
        • Kitahora T.
        • Utsunomiya T.
        • Yokota A.
        Epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Japan: incidence and familial occurrence.
        J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 5-8
        • Yang S.K.
        • Hong W.S.
        • Min Y.I.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Songpa-Kangdong District, Seoul, Korea, 1986–1997.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 15: 1037-1042
        • Yang S.-K.
        • Yun S.
        • Kim J.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Songpa-Kangdong district, Seoul, Korea, 1986–2005: a KASID study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 542-549
        • Tezel A.
        • Dokmeci G.
        • Eskiocak M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological features of ulcerative colitis in Trakya, Turkey.
        J Int Med Res. 2003; 31: 141-148
        • Bonnevie O.
        • Riis P.
        • Anthonisen P.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen County.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1968; 3: 432-438
        • Langholz E.
        • Munkholm P.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen county from 1962 to 1987.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 1247-1256
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962–87: a sixfold increase in incidence.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 609-614
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence of Crohn disease in the county of Copenhagen [in Danish].
        Ugeskr Laeger. 1993; 155: 3199-3202
        • Vind I.
        • Riis L.
        • Jess T.
        • et al.
        Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003–2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101 ([see comment]): 1274-1282
        • Binder V.
        • Both H.
        • Hansen P.K.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the County of Copenhagen, 1962 to 1978.
        Gastroenterology. 1982; 83: 563-568
        • Jacobsen B.A.
        • Fallingborg J.
        • Rasmussen H.H.
        • et al.
        Increase in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern Denmark: a population-based study, 1978–2002.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 18: 601-606
        • Fonager K.
        • Sorensen H.T.
        • Olsen J.
        Change in incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Denmark.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1997; 26: 1003-1008
        • Berner J.
        • Kiaer T.
        Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease on the Faroe Islands 1964–83.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 188-192
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Thorgeirsson T.
        Ulcerative colitis in Iceland.
        Nord Med. 1983; 98: 298-301
        • Romberg-Camps M.J.
        • Hesselink-van de Kruijs M.A.
        • Schouten L.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in South Limburg (the Netherlands) 1991–2002: Incidence, diagnostic delay, and seasonal variations in onset and symptoms.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2009; 3: 115-124
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Nap M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Regio Leiden, The Netherlands.
        Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 966-974
        • Kildebo S.
        • Nordgaard K.
        • Aronsen O.
        • et al.
        The incidence of ulcerative colitis in Northern Norway from 1983 to 1986.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990; 25: 890-896
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in four counties of southeastern Norway, 1990–93. A prospective population-based study. The Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway (IBSEN) Study Group of Gastroenterologists.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 362-366
        • Brahme F.
        • Lindstrom C.
        • Wenckert A.
        Crohn's disease in a defined population.
        Gastroenterology. 1975; 69: 342-351
        • Stewenius J.
        • Adnerhill I.
        • Ekelund G.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in the city of Malmo, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 38-43
        • Bergman L.
        • Krause U.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in central Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975; 10: 725-729
        • Norlen B.J.
        • Krause U.
        • Bergman L.
        An epidemiological study of Crohn's disease.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970; 5: 385-390
        • Lapidus A.
        Crohn's disease in Stockholm County during 1990–2001: an epidemiological update [see comment].
        World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12: 75-81
        • Lapidus A.
        • Bernell O.
        • Hellers G.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955–1989.
        Gut. 1997; 41: 480-486
        • Smith I.S.
        • Young S.
        • Gillespie G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological aspects of Crohn's disease in Clydesdale 1961–1970.
        Gut. 1975; 16: 62-67
        • Srivastava E.D.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Morris T.J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Cardiff over 20 years: 1968–87.
        Gut. 1992; 33: 256-258
        • Rubin G.P.
        • Hungin A.P.
        • Kelly P.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology and management in an English general practice population.
        Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000; 14: 1553-1559
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Freeman J.G.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in the city of Derby, 1951–85.
        Gut. 1990; 31: 1262-1265
        • Evans J.G.
        • Acheson E.D.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis in the Oxford area.
        Gut. 1965; 6: 311-324
        • Miller D.S.
        • Keighley A.C.
        • Langman M.J.
        Changing patterns in epidemiology of Crohn's disease.
        Lancet. 1974; 2: 691-693
        • Tresadern J.C.
        • Gear M.W.
        • Nicol A.
        An epidemiological study of regional enteritis in the Gloucester area.
        Br J Surg. 1973; 60: 366-368
        • Brown J.S.
        • Humphreys W.G.
        • Parks T.G.
        Changing pattern of Crohn's disease in Northern Ireland.
        Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988; 296: 1444-1445
        • Kyle J.
        Crohn's disease in the northeastern and northern Isles of Scotland: an epidemiological review [see comment].
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 392-399
        • Humphreys W.G.
        • Brown J.S.
        • Parks T.G.
        Crohn's disease in Northern Ireland—a retrospective study of 440 cases. 1990; 1: 30-35
        • Seagroatt V.
        • Goldacre M.J.
        Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and measles vaccine in an English population, 1979–1998. 2003; 11: 883-887
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a 12-year study (1995–2006).
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23: 957-964
        • Salkic N.N.
        • Pavlovic-Calic N.
        • Gegic A.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1995 and 2006: epidemiological and clinical characteristics.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010; 22: 346-353
        • Sincic B.M.
        • Vucelic B.
        • Persic M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia, 2000–2004: a prospective population-based study [see comment].
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006; 41: 437-444
        • Vucelic B.
        • Korac B.
        • Sentic M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Zagreb, Yugoslavia: a ten-year prospective study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1991; 20: 216-220
        • Lopez-Serrano P.
        • Perez-Calle J.L.
        • Carrera-Alonso E.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic study on the current incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Madrid. 2009; 11: 768-772
        • Ruiz Ochoa V.
        Epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in Galicia from 1976 to 1983 [in Spanish].
        Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig. 1984; 66: 273-279
        • Brullet E.
        • Bonfill X.
        • Urrutia G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological study on the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in 4 Spanish areas.
        Med Clin (Barc). 1998; 110: 651-656
        • Lopez Miguel C.
        • Sicilia B.
        • Sierra E.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Aragon: outcome of a prospective population-based study [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999; 22: 323-328
        • Pozzati L.
        • Cabanillas A.
        Hospital study of the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the health district of Merida (Spain) [in Spanish].
        Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 25: 541-544
        • Manousos O.N.
        • Koutroubakis I.
        • Potamianos S.
        • et al.
        A prospective epidemiologic study of Crohn's disease in Heraklion, Crete.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 599-603
        • Manousos O.N.
        • Giannadaki E.
        • Mouzas I.A.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis is as common in Crete as in northern Europe: a 5-year prospective study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996; 8: 893-898
        • Ladas S.-D.
        • Mallas E.
        • Giorgiotis K.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: a prospective study.
        World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11: 1785-1787
        • Tsianos E.V.
        • Masalas C.N.
        • Merkouropoulos M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in north west Greece: rarity of Crohn's disease in an area where ulcerative colitis is common.
        Gut. 1994; 35: 369-372
        • Tsianos E.V.
        • Katsanos K.H.
        • Christodoulou D.
        • et al.
        Continuing low incidence of Crohn's disease in Northwest Greece.
        Dig Liver Dis. 2003; 35: 99-103
        • Trallori G.
        • Palli D.
        • Saieva C.
        • et al.
        A population-based study of inflammatory bowel disease in Florence over 15 years (1978–92).
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 892-899
        • Cottone M.
        • Cipolla C.
        • Orlando A.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Sicily: a hospital incidence study from 1987 to 1989.
        Eur J Epidemiol. 1991; 7: 636-640
        • Cottone M.
        • Cipolla C.
        • Orlando A.
        • et al.
        Hospital incidence of Crohn's disease in the province of Palermo.
        Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1989; 170 (discussion 50–55): 27-28
        • Tragnone A.
        • Corrao G.
        • Miglio F.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Italy: a nationwide population-based study.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1996; 25 (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio del Colon e del Retto (GISC) [see comment]): 1044-1052
        • Cachia E.
        • Calleja N.
        • Aakeroy R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Malta between 1993 and 2005: a retrospective study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 550-553
        • Flamenbaum M.
        • Zenut M.
        • Aublet-Cuvelier B.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in the department of Puy-de-Dome in 1993 and 1994.
        Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1997; 21: 491-496
        • Gower-Rousseau C.
        • Salomez J.L.
        • Dupas J.L.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern France (1988–1990).
        Gut. 1994; 35: 1433-1438
        • Molinie F.
        • Gower-Rousseau C.
        • Yzet T.
        • et al.
        Opposite evolution in incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Northern France (1988–1999).
        Gut. 2004; 53: 843-848
        • Nerich V.
        • Monnet E.
        • Etienne A.
        • et al.
        Geographical variations of inflammatory bowel disease in France: a study based on national health insurance data.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006; 12: 218-226
        • Loffler A.
        • Glados M.
        Data on the epidemiology of Crohn disease in the city of Cologne [in German].
        Med Klin. 1993; 88: 516-519
        • Goebell H.
        • Dirks E.
        • Förster S.
        • et al.
        A prospective analysis of the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in an urban population in Germany.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1994; 6: 1039-1046
        • Dirks E.
        • Forster S.
        • Thom M.
        • et al.
        Prospective study of the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in a large urban population in Germany (western Ruhr area) [in German].
        Z Gastroenterol. 1994; 32: 332-337
        • Timmer A.
        • Goebell H.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis, 1980–1995—a prospective study in an urban population in Germany.
        Z Gastroenterol. 1999; 37: 1079-1084
        • Timmer A.
        • Breuer-Katschinski B.
        • Goebell H.
        Time trends in the incidence and disease location of Crohn's disease 1980–1995: a prospective analysis in an urban population in Germany.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 1999; 5: 79-84
        • Fahrlander H.
        • Baerlocher C.
        Clinical features and epidemiological data on Crohn's disease in the Basle area.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971; 6: 657-662
        • Lakatos L.
        • Mester G.
        • Erdelyi Z.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases in Veszprem county of Western Hungary between 1977 and 2001 [in Hungarian].
        Orv Hetil. 2003; 144: 1819-1827

      References

        • Lowe A.-M.
        • Roy P.-O.
        • B-Poulin M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Quebec, Canada.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 429-435
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Blanchard J.F.
        • Rawsthorne P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a central Canadian province: a population-based study.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 149: 916-924
        • Bernstein C.N.
        • Wajda A.
        • Svenson L.W.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study [see comment] [erratum appears in Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:1945].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1559-1568
        • Loftus C.G.
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Harmsen W.S.
        • et al.
        Update on the incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–2000.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007; 13: 254-261
        • Gollop J.H.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Epidemiologic aspects of Crohn's disease: a population based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1943–1982.
        Gut. 1988; 29: 49-56
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival.
        Gut. 2000; 46: 336-343
        • Loftus Jr, E.V.
        • Silverstein M.D.
        • Sandborn W.J.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940–1993: incidence, prevalence, and survival [erratum appears in Gastroenterology 1999;116:1507].
        Gastroenterology. 1998; 114: 1161-1168
        • Sedlack R.E.
        • Whisnant J.
        • Elveback L.R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1975.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1980; 112: 759-763
        • Kurata J.H.
        • Kantor-Fish S.
        • Frankl H.
        • et al.
        Crohn's disease among ethnic groups in a large health maintenance organization.
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 102: 1940-1948
        • Herrinton L.J.
        • Liu L.
        • Lewis J.D.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a Northern California managed care organization, 1996–2002.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103: 1998-2006
        • Stowe S.P.
        • Redmond S.R.
        • Stormont J.M.
        • et al.
        An epidemiologic study of inflammatory bowel disease in Rochester, New York.
        Gastroenterology. 1990; 98: 104-110
        • Stonnington C.M.
        • Phillips S.F.
        • Melton III, L.J.
        • et al.
        Chronic ulcerative colitis: incidence and prevalence in a community.
        Gut. 1987; 28: 402-409
        • Spencer R.J.
        Etiology and epidemiology of ulcerative colitis.
        Can J Surg. 1974; 17: 414-415
        • Edwards C.N.
        • Griffith S.G.
        • Hennis A.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and disease characteristics in Barbados, West Indies.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 1419-1424
        • Chow D.K.L.
        • Leong R.W.L.
        • Tsoi K.K.F.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow-up of ulcerative colitis in the Chinese population.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104: 647-654
        • Fireman Z.
        • Grossman A.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in the Jewish population of central Israel, 1970–1980.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1989; 84: 255-258
        • Grossman A.
        • Fireman Z.
        • Lilos P.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in the Jewish population of central Israel 1970–1980.
        Hepatogastroenterology. 1989; 36: 193-197
        • Odes H.S.
        • Locker C.
        • Neumann L.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in southern Israel.
        Am J Gastroenterol. 1994; 89: 1859-1862
        • Shapira M.
        • Tamir A.
        Ulcerative colitis in the Kinneret sub district, Israel 1965–1994: incidence and prevalence in different subgroups.
        J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998; 27: 134-137
        • Utsunomiya T.
        Ulcerative colitis in Japan.
        IRYO Jpn J Natl Med Serv. 1983; 37
        • Yang S.K.
        • Hong W.S.
        • Min Y.I.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in the Songpa-Kangdong District, Seoul, Korea, 1986–1997.
        J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 15: 1037-1042
        • Yang S.-K.
        • Yun S.
        • Kim J.-H.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in the Songpa-Kangdong district, Seoul, Korea, 1986–2005: a KASID study.
        Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008; 14: 542-549
        • Shivananda S.
        • Lennard-Jones J.
        • Logan R.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease across Europe: is there a difference between north and south?.
        Gut. 1996; 39: 690-697
        • Bonnevie O.
        • Riis P.
        • Anthonisen P.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen County.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1968; 3: 432-438
        • Langholz E.
        • Munkholm P.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Copenhagen county from 1962 to 1987.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 1247-1256
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962–87: a sixfold increase in incidence.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 609-614
        • Munkholm P.
        • Langholz E.
        • Nielsen O.H.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence of Crohn disease in the county of Copenhagen [in Danish].
        Ugeskr Laeger. 1993; 155: 3199-3202
        • Vind I.
        • Riis L.
        • Jess T.
        • et al.
        Increasing incidences of inflammatory bowel disease and decreasing surgery rates in Copenhagen City and County, 2003–2005: a population-based study from the Danish Crohn colitis database [see comment].
        Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101: 1274-1282
        • Binder V.
        • Both H.
        • Hansen P.K.
        • et al.
        Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the County of Copenhagen, 1962 to 1978.
        Gastroenterology. 1982; 83: 563-568
        • Jacobsen B.A.
        • Fallingborg J.
        • Rasmussen H.H.
        • et al.
        Increase in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in northern Denmark: a population-based study, 1978–2002.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006; 18: 601-606
        • Fonager K.
        • Sorensen H.T.
        • Olsen J.
        Change in incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Denmark.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1997; 26: 1003-1008
        • Berner J.
        • Kiaer T.
        Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease on the Faroe Islands 1964–83.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 188-192
        • Linden G.
        • Moller C.
        Ulcerative colitis in Finland. II. One-year incidence in all hospitals.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1971; 14: 264-266
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Johannsson J.H.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland, 1990–1994: a prospective, nationwide, epidemiological study.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000; 12: 31-38
        • Bjornsson S.
        • Johannsson J.H.
        • Oddsson E.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in Iceland, 1980–89.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1998; 33: 71-77
        • Romberg-Camps M.J.
        • Hesselink-van de Kruijs M.A.
        • Schouten L.J.
        • et al.
        Inflammatory bowel disease in South Limburg (the Netherlands) 1991–2002: incidence, diagnostic delay, and seasonal variations in onset and symptoms.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2009; 3: 115-124
        • Russel M.G.
        • Dorant E.
        • Volovics A.
        • et al.
        High incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in The Netherlands: results of a prospective study.
        Dis Colon Rectum. 1998; 41: 33-40
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Nap M.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in Regio Leiden, The Netherlands.
        Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 966-974
        • Shivananda S.
        • Pena A.S.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of proctocolitis in the region of Leiden, The Netherlands: a population Sstudy from 1979 to 1983.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1987; 22: 993-1002
        • Haug K.
        • Schrumpf E.
        • Halvorsen J.F.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of Crohn's disease in western Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 1271-1275
        • Haug K.
        • Schrumpf E.
        • Barstad S.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis in western Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988; 23: 517-522
        • Kildebo S.
        • Breckan R.
        • Nordgaard K.
        • et al.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in northern Norway from 1983 to 1986.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1989; 24: 1265-1270
        • Kildebo S.
        • Nordgaard K.
        • Aronsen O.
        • et al.
        The incidence of ulcerative colitis in Northern Norway from 1983 to 1986.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990; 25: 890-896
        • Myren J.
        • Gjone E.
        • Hertzberg J.N.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of ulcerative colitis and regional enterocolitis (Crohn's disease) in Norway.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971; 6: 511-514
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in four counties of southeastern Norway, 1990–93. A prospective population-based study. The Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway (IBSEN) Study Group of Gastroenterologists.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 362-366
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in four counties in southeastern Norway, 1990–93. A prospective population-based study. The Inflammatory Bowel South-Eastern Norway (IBSEN) Study Group of Gastroenterologists.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1996; 31: 355-361
        • Bengtson M.B.
        • Solberg C.
        • Aamodt G.
        • et al.
        Familial aggregation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a Norwegian population-based cohort followed for ten years. 2009; 2: 92-99
        • Moum B.
        • Vatn M.H.
        • Ekbom A.
        • et al.
        Incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in southeastern Norway: evaluation of methods after 1 year of registration.
        Digestion. 1995; 56: 377-381
        • Brahme F.
        • Lindstrom C.
        • Wenckert A.
        Crohn's disease in a defined population.
        Gastroenterology. 1975; 69: 342-351
        • Stewenius J.
        • Adnerhill I.
        • Ekelund G.
        • et al.
        Ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis in the city of Malmo, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1995; 30: 38-43
        • Ekbom A.
        • Helmick C.
        • Zack M.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: a large, population-based study in Sweden.
        Gastroenterology. 1991; 100: 350-358
        • Bergman L.
        • Krause U.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease in central Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1975; 10: 725-729
        • Norlen B.J.
        • Krause U.
        • Bergman L.
        An epidemiological study of Crohn's disease.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1970; 5: 385-390
        • Nordenvall B.
        • Brostrom O.
        • Berglund M.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Stockholm County 1955–1979.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1985; 20: 783-790
        • Nyhlin H.
        • Danielsson A.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in a defined population in northern Sweden, 1974–1981.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 1185-1192
        • Lindberg E.
        • Jornerot G.
        The incidence of Crohn's disease is not decreasing in Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1991; 26: 495-500
        • Tysk C.
        • Jarnerot G.
        Ulcerative proctocolitis in Orebro, Sweden.
        Scand J Gastroenterol. 1992; 27: 945-950
        • Lapidus A.
        • Bernell O.
        • Hellers G.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955–1989.
        Gut. 1997; 41: 480-486
        • Ronnblom A.
        • Ekbom A.
        Ulcerative colitis in the county of Uppsala 1945–2007: incidence and clinical characteristics.
        J Crohns Colitis. 2010; 4 (SS): 532-536
        • Smith I.S.
        • Young S.
        • Gillespie G.
        • et al.
        Epidemiological aspects of Crohn's disease in Clydesdale 1961–1970.
        Gut. 1975; 16: 62-67
        • Thomas G.A.
        • Millar-Jones D.
        • Rhodes J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Cardiff over 60 years: 1986–1990 an update.
        Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995; 7: 401-405
        • Srivastava E.D.
        • Mayberry J.F.
        • Morris T.J.
        • et al.
        Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Cardiff over 20 years: 1968–87.
        Gut. 1992; 33: 256-258
        • Mayberry J.
        • Rhodes J.
        • Hughes L.E.
        Incidence of Crohn's disease in Cardiff between 1934–1977.
        Gut. 1979; 20: 602-608
        • Fellows I.W.
        • Freeman J.G.
        • Holmes G.K.
        Crohn's disease in the city of Derby, 1951–85.
        Gut. 1990; 31: 1262-1265
        • Evans J.G.
        • Acheson E.D.
        An epidemiological study of ulcerative colitis and regional enteritis in the Oxford area.
        Gut. 1965; 6: 311-324
        • Tresadern J.C.
        • Gear M.W.
        • Nicol A.
        An epidemiological study of regional enteritis in the Gloucester area.
        Br J Surg. 1973; 60: 366-368
        • Kyle J.
        Crohn's disease in the northeastern and northern Isles of Scotland: an epidemiological review [see comment].
        Gastroenterology. 1992; 103: 392-399